Human Flow 人の流れ


Human Flow


“Network analysis of attitudes towards immigrants in Asia ”

Rachael Kei Kawasaki, Yuichi Ikeda, 
Applied Network Science ,5 , 1, 

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 This study models cross-national attitudes towards immigrants in East and Southeast Asia as a signed and weighted bipartite network of countries and evaluative reactions to a variety of political issues, or determinants. This network is then projected into two one-mode networks, one of countries and one of determinants, and community detection methods are applied. The paper aims to fill two deficiencies in the current research on attitudes towards immigrants: 1) the lack of cross-national studies in Asia, a region where migration is growing, and 2) the tendency of researchers to treat determinants as uncorrelated, despite the interdependent nature of evaluative reactions. The results show that the nine countries in the sample are a cohesive clique, showing greater similarities than differences in the determinants of their attitudes. A blockmodeling approach was employed to identify eight determinants in attitudes towards immigrants, namely views on independence and social dependencies, group identities, absolute or relative moral orientation, attitudes towards democracy, science and technology, prejudice and stigma, and two determinants related to religion. However, the findings of this survey yielded some surprising results when compared with the literature review. First, education was not found to be a significant determinants of attitudes towards immigrants, despite its strong and consistent predictive power in European models. Second, prejudice appears to be mediated in part by religion, especially in religious identification and belief in God. Group identity and prejudice also appear to be related, though only weakly. Finally, anxiety appears in clusters related to social norms, suggesting that fears regarding immigrants relates closely to expectations of others’ behavior. 


“Analysis of labor productivity using large-scale data of firm’s financial statements”

Y. Ikeda, W. Souma, H. Aoyama, Y. Fujiwara, H. Iyetomi, 

European Physical Journal B, 76, 4, 491-499,

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We investigated labor productivity distribution by analyzing large-scale financial statement data consisting of listed and unlisted Japanese firms to clarify the characteristics of the Japanese labor market. Both high and low productivity sides of the labor productivity distribution follows the power-law distribution. Large inequality in the low productivity side was observed only for the manufacturing sectors in Japan fiscal year (JFY) 1999 and observed for both the manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors in JFY 2002. The decline in the Japanese GDP in JFY 1999 and JFY 2002 were coincided with the large inequality in the low productivity side of the distribution. A lower peak was found for all non-manufacturing sectors. This might be the origin of the low productivity of the non-manufacturing sectors reported in recent economic studies.

本研究では、日本の労働市場の特徴を明らかにするために、日本の上場企業と非上場企業の大規模な財務諸表データを分析し、労働生産性の分布を調べた。その結果、労働生産性分布の高生産性側、低生産性側ともに力法則分布に従っていることが明らかになった。低生産性側の格差が大きいのは,1999 年度の製造業のみであり,2002 年度には製造業と非製造業の両方で観測されている。1999 年度と 2002 年度の日本の GDP の低下は、分布の低生産性側の格差の大きさと重なっている。非製造業のすべての部門で低いピークが見られた。これが最近の経済研究で報告されている非製造業の生産性の低さの原因ではないかと考えられる。

“International comparison of labor productivity distribution for manufacturing and non-manufacturing firms”

Y. Ikeda, W. Souma,
Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement, 179, 93-102,

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Labor productivity was studied at the microscopic level in terms of distributions based on individual firm financial data from Japan and the US. A power-law distribution in terms of firms and sector productivity was found in both countries' data. The labor productivities were not equal for nation and sectors, in contrast to the prevailing view in the field of economics. It was found that the low productivity of the Japanese non-manufacturing sector reported in macro-economic studies was due to the low productivity of small fims.



Commodity Flow



Monetary Flow



Human Flow



Decarbonized energy system



Economic Collective Motions